ПОНИМАНИЕ КОНЦЕПЦИИ ПЕРЕПРОГРАММИРОВАНИЯ ВОЗРАСТА

Получена: 22 сентября 2023/ Принята: 16 ноября/ Опубликована online: 28 декабря 2023
УДК: 577.24
DOI: 10.26212/2227-1937.2023.55.94.017

А.С. Жакупова1, ORCID: http://orcid:0000-0003-4950-160X
А.А. Турмухамбетова2, ORCID: http://orcid:0000-0002-4668-3295
Т.М. Салиев3, ORCID: http://orcid:0000-0001-5696-6363
П.Б. Сингх1, ORCID: http://orcid:0000-0002-9571-0974
1 Школа Медицины Назарбаев Университет, г. Астана
2 НАО «Медицинский университет Караганды», г. Караганды
3 Научно-исследовательский институт фундаментальной и прикладной медицины имени Б. Атчабарова (НИИФПМ), г.Алматы

ПОНИМАНИЕ КОНЦЕПЦИИ ПЕРЕПРОГРАММИРОВАНИЯ ВОЗРАСТА

Резюме: Перепрограммирование возраста представляет собой новый метод создания пациент-специфичных тканей
для трансплантации. Данный метод позволяет обойти цикл повторной дифференцировки, характерный для
индуцированных плюрипотентных стволовых клеток (iPS) и ядерно-трансферных эмбриональных стволовых
клеток (NT-ES). Данные технологии вызывают большой интерес в регенеративной медицине. Несмотря на
очевидный потенциал клеточной терапии iPS и NT-ES, существует несколько проблем, которые необходимо
преодолеть, прежде чем данные методы лечения станут безопасными и рутинными. Альтернативой
вышеперечисленным методам является перепрограммирование возраста, которое направлено на омоложение
специализированных функций старой клетки без прохождения де-дифференцировки. Также в отличие от клеточной
терапии iPS и NT-ES, перепрограммирование возраста не требует прохождения перепрограммирования развития
через эмбриональную стадию. Работы по перепрограммированию возраста были в основном сосредоточены на
одном аспекте – эпигеноме. Эпигенетическое омоложение было достигнуто in vitro в отсутствии дедифференцировки с использованием факторов перепрограммирования iPS клеток. Исследования динамики
перепрограммирования эпигенетического возраста (eAge) показали, что отличие eAge от перепрограммирования
развития может быть в значительной степени объяснено их различной кинетикой. Перепрограммирование
возраста также было достигнуто in vivo и было показано, что оно увеличивает продолжительность жизни у мышей с
преждевременным старением. В данной статье приводятся доказательства того, что перепрограммирование
развития можно регулировать in vitro и in vivo, а также направления будущих исследований для углубления нашего
понимания данного явления, которое даст значительные преимущества в регенеративной терапии.
Ключевые слова: перепрограммирование возраста, эпигенетическое омоложение, перенос ядер соматических
клеток (SCNT), iPS клетки, факторы перепрограммирования, эпигенетические часы, eAge.

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